Terrain Collision

This tutorial expands the HelloTerrain tutorial and makes the terrain solid. You combine what you learned in Hello Terrain and Hello Collision and add a CollisionShape to the terrain. The terrain’s CollisionShape lets the first-person player (who is also a CollisionShape) collide with the terrain, i.e. walk on it and stand on it.

Sample Code

package jme3test.helloworld;

import com.jme3.app.SimpleApplication;
import com.jme3.bullet.BulletAppState;
import com.jme3.bullet.collision.shapes.CapsuleCollisionShape;
import com.jme3.bullet.collision.shapes.CollisionShape;
import com.jme3.bullet.control.CharacterControl;
import com.jme3.bullet.control.RigidBodyControl;
import com.jme3.bullet.util.CollisionShapeFactory;
import com.jme3.input.KeyInput;
import com.jme3.input.controls.ActionListener;
import com.jme3.input.controls.KeyTrigger;
import com.jme3.material.Material;
import com.jme3.math.Vector3f;
import com.jme3.renderer.Camera;
import com.jme3.scene.Node;
import com.jme3.terrain.geomipmap.TerrainLodControl;
import com.jme3.terrain.heightmap.AbstractHeightMap;
import com.jme3.terrain.geomipmap.TerrainQuad;
import com.jme3.terrain.heightmap.ImageBasedHeightMap;
import com.jme3.texture.Texture;
import com.jme3.texture.Texture.WrapMode;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import jme3tools.converters.ImageToAwt;

/**
 * This demo shows a terrain with collision detection,
 * that you can walk around in with a first-person perspective.
 * This code combines HelloCollision and HelloTerrain.
 */
public class HelloTerrainCollision extends SimpleApplication
        implements ActionListener {

  private BulletAppState bulletAppState;
  private RigidBodyControl landscape;
  private CharacterControl player;
  private Vector3f walkDirection = new Vector3f();
  private boolean left = false, right = false, up = false, down = false;
  private TerrainQuad terrain;
  private Material mat_terrain;

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    HelloTerrainCollision app = new HelloTerrainCollision();
    app.start();
  }

  @Override
  public void simpleInitApp() {
    /** Set up Physics */
    bulletAppState = new BulletAppState();
    stateManager.attach(bulletAppState);
    //Uncomment for debugging.
    //bulletAppState.setDebugEnabled(true);

    flyCam.setMoveSpeed(100);
    setUpKeys();

    /** 1. Create terrain material and load four textures into it. */
    mat_terrain = new Material(assetManager,
            "Common/MatDefs/Terrain/Terrain.j3md");

    /** 1.1) Add ALPHA map (for red-blue-green coded splat textures) */
    mat_terrain.setTexture("Alpha", assetManager.loadTexture(
            "Textures/Terrain/splat/alphamap.png"));

    /** 1.2) Add GRASS texture into the red layer (Tex1). */
    Texture grass = assetManager.loadTexture(
            "Textures/Terrain/splat/grass.jpg");
    grass.setWrap(WrapMode.Repeat);
    mat_terrain.setTexture("Tex1", grass);
    mat_terrain.setFloat("Tex1Scale", 64f);

    /** 1.3) Add DIRT texture into the green layer (Tex2) */
    Texture dirt = assetManager.loadTexture(
            "Textures/Terrain/splat/dirt.jpg");
    dirt.setWrap(WrapMode.Repeat);
    mat_terrain.setTexture("Tex2", dirt);
    mat_terrain.setFloat("Tex2Scale", 32f);

    /** 1.4) Add ROAD texture into the blue layer (Tex3) */
    Texture rock = assetManager.loadTexture(
            "Textures/Terrain/splat/road.jpg");
    rock.setWrap(WrapMode.Repeat);
    mat_terrain.setTexture("Tex3", rock);
    mat_terrain.setFloat("Tex3Scale", 128f);

    /** 2. Create the height map */
    AbstractHeightMap heightmap = null;
    Texture heightMapImage = assetManager.loadTexture(
            "Textures/Terrain/splat/mountains512.png");
    heightmap = new ImageBasedHeightMap(heightMapImage.getImage());
    heightmap.load();

    /** 3. We have prepared material and heightmap.
     * Now we create the actual terrain:
     * 3.1) Create a TerrainQuad and name it "my terrain".
     * 3.2) A good value for terrain tiles is 64x64 -- so we supply 64+1=65.
     * 3.3) We prepared a heightmap of size 512x512 -- so we supply 512+1=513.
     * 3.4) As LOD step scale we supply Vector3f(1,1,1).
     * 3.5) We supply the prepared heightmap itself.
     */
    terrain = new TerrainQuad("my terrain", 65, 513, heightmap.getHeightMap());

    /** 4. We give the terrain its material, position & scale it, and attach it. */
    terrain.setMaterial(mat_terrain);
    terrain.setLocalTranslation(0, -100, 0);
    terrain.setLocalScale(2f, 1f, 2f);
    rootNode.attachChild(terrain);

    /** 5. The LOD (level of detail) depends on were the camera is: */
    List<Camera> cameras = new ArrayList<Camera>();
    cameras.add(getCamera());
    TerrainLodControl control = new TerrainLodControl(terrain, cameras);
    terrain.addControl(control);

    /** 6. Add physics: */
    // We set up collision detection for the scene by creating a static
    RigidBodyControl with mass zero.*/
    terrain.addControl(new RigidBodyControl(0));

    // We set up collision detection for the player by creating
    // a capsule collision shape and a CharacterControl.
    // The CharacterControl offers extra settings for
    // size, stepheight, jumping, falling, and gravity.
    // We also put the player in its starting position.
    CapsuleCollisionShape capsuleShape = new CapsuleCollisionShape(1.5f, 6f, 1);
    player = new CharacterControl(capsuleShape, 0.05f);
    player.setJumpSpeed(20);
    player.setFallSpeed(30);

    //Some methods used for setting gravity related variables were deprecated in
    //the 3.2 version of the engine. Choose the method that matches your version
    //of the engine.
    // < jME3.2
    // player.setGravity(30f);

    // >= jME3.2
    player.setGravity(new Vector3f(0,-30f,0));

    player.setPhysicsLocation(new Vector3f(-10, 10, 10));

    // We attach the scene and the player to the rootnode and the physics space,
    // to make them appear in the game world.
    bulletAppState.getPhysicsSpace().add(terrain);
    bulletAppState.getPhysicsSpace().add(player);

  }
  /** We over-write some navigational key mappings here, so we can
   * add physics-controlled walking and jumping: */
  private void setUpKeys() {
    inputManager.addMapping("Left", new KeyTrigger(KeyInput.KEY_A));
    inputManager.addMapping("Right", new KeyTrigger(KeyInput.KEY_D));
    inputManager.addMapping("Up", new KeyTrigger(KeyInput.KEY_W));
    inputManager.addMapping("Down", new KeyTrigger(KeyInput.KEY_S));
    inputManager.addMapping("Jump", new KeyTrigger(KeyInput.KEY_SPACE));
    inputManager.addListener(this, "Left");
    inputManager.addListener(this, "Right");
    inputManager.addListener(this, "Up");
    inputManager.addListener(this, "Down");
    inputManager.addListener(this, "Jump");
  }

  /** These are our custom actions triggered by key presses.
   * We do not walk yet, we just keep track of the direction the user pressed. */
  public void onAction(String binding, boolean value, float tpf) {
    if (binding.equals("Left")) {
      if (value) { left = true; } else { left = false; }
    } else if (binding.equals("Right")) {
      if (value) { right = true; } else { right = false; }
    } else if (binding.equals("Up")) {
      if (value) { up = true; } else { up = false; }
    } else if (binding.equals("Down")) {
      if (value) { down = true; } else { down = false; }
    } else if (binding.equals("Jump")) {
      //Some methods used for setting gravity related variables were deprecated in
      //the 3.2 version of the engine. Choose the method that matches your version
      //of the engine.
      // < jME3.2
      //player.jump();

      // >= jME3.2
      player.jump(new Vector3f(0,20f,0));

    }
  }

  /**
   * This is the main event loop--walking happens here.
   * We check in which direction the player is walking by interpreting
   * the camera direction forward (camDir) and to the side (camLeft).
   * The setWalkDirection() command is what lets a physics-controlled player walk.
   * We also make sure here that the camera moves with player.
   */
  @Override
  public void simpleUpdate(float tpf) {
    Vector3f camDir = cam.getDirection().clone().multLocal(0.6f);
    Vector3f camLeft = cam.getLeft().clone().multLocal(0.4f);
    walkDirection.set(0, 0, 0);
    if (left)  { walkDirection.addLocal(camLeft); }
    if (right) { walkDirection.addLocal(camLeft.negate()); }
    if (up)    { walkDirection.addLocal(camDir); }
    if (down)  { walkDirection.addLocal(camDir.negate()); }
    player.setWalkDirection(walkDirection);
    cam.setLocation(player.getPhysicsLocation());
  }
}

To try this code, create a New Project ▸ JME3 ▸ BasicGame using the default settings. Paste the sample code over the pregenerated Main.java class. Change the package to ‘mygame’ if necessary. Open the File ▸ Project Properties ▸ Libraries and add the jme3-test-data library to make certain you have all the files.

Compile and run the code. You should see a terrain. You can use the WASD keys and the mouse to run up and down the hills.

Understanding the Code

The Terrain Code

Read Hello Terrain for details of the following parts that we reuse:

  1. The AbstractHeightMap is an efficient way to describe the shape of the terrain.

  2. The Terrain.j3md-based Material and its texture layers let you colorize rocky mountain, grassy valleys, and a paved path criss-crossing over the landscape.

  3. The TerrainQuad is the finished terrain Spatial that you attach to the rootNode.

The Collision Detection Code

Read Hello Collision for details of the following parts that we reuse:

  1. The BulletAppState lines activate physics.

  2. The ActionListener (onAction()) lets you reconfigure the input handling for the first-person player, so it takes collision detection into account.

  3. The custom setUpKeys() method loads your reconfigured input handlers. They now don’t just walk blindly, but calculate the walkDirection vector that we need for collision detection.

  4. simpleUpdate() uses the walkDirection vector and makes the character walk, while taking obstacles and solid walls/floor into account.

player.setWalkDirection(walkDirection);
  1. The RigidBodyControl landscape is the CollisionShape of the terrain.

  2. The physical first-person player is a CapsuleCollisionShape with a CharacterControl.

Combining the Two

Here are the changed parts to combine the two:

  1. You create a static (zero-mass) RigidBodyControl.

  2. Add the control to the terrain to make it physical.

/** 6. Add physics: */
    terrain.addControl(new RigidBodyControl(0));

You attach the terrain and the first-person player to the rootNode, and to the physics space, to make them appear in the game world.

    bulletAppState.getPhysicsSpace().add(terrain);
    bulletAppState.getPhysicsSpace().add(player);

Conclusion

You see that you can combine snippets of sample code (such as HelloTerrain and HelloCollision), and create a new application from it that combines two features into soemthing new.

You should spawn high up in the area and fall down to the map, giving you a few seconds to survey the area. Then walk around and see how you like the lay of the land.


See also: